2010 Florida Citrus Pest Management Guide: Pesticide Resistance and Resistance Management
Populations of animals and plants possess the ability to respond to sustained changes or stresses in their environment in ways that enable the continued survival of the species. Such environmental stresses include physical factors (e.g., temperature or humidity), biological factors (e.g., predators, parasites, or pathogens) and environmental contaminants. In any population, a small percentage of individuals will be better able to respond to new stresses because of unique traits or characteristics that they possess. Consequently, those individuals will survive and reproduce. This phenomenon is commonly referred to as "survival of the fittest."
Many pest species, such as the citrus rust mite, are exceptionally well-equipped to respond to environmental stresses because of their short generation time and large reproductive potential. The use of chemical sprays to control insect, mite, and some fungal diseases of citrus pests creates a potent environmental stress. There are now many examples of pests that have responded by developing resistance to one or more pesticides. Pesticide-resistant individuals are those that have developed the ability to tolerate doses of a toxicant that would be lethal to the majority of individuals. The mechanisms of resistance can vary according to pest species and/or the class of chemical to which the pest is exposed. Resistance mechanisms include an increased capacity to detoxify the pesticide once it has entered the pest's body, a decreased sensitivity of the target site that the pesticide acts upon, a decreased penetration of the pesticide through the cuticle, or sequestration of the pesticide within the organism. A single resistance mechanism can sometimes provide defense against different classes of chemicals and this is known as cross resistance. When more than one resistance mechanism is expressed in the same individual, this individual is said to show multiple resistance.