Each year, Agromisa receives many enquiries on agroforestry from persons and institutions in the South. There is thus clearly a need for practical information on the subject. It is in this context that this Agrodok is presented. It describes the essential elements of agroforestry, from some basic principles to their practical application; looking at the benefits but also paying attention to the difficulties and constraints. The aim is to offer options for improved land-use in the tropics. Extension issues are also addressed, because recommendations by scientists or extension workers to introduce certain agroforestry systems can only be successful if village people are convinced that the proposed change in their land-use is beneficial.