Breadmaking use of the Andean Crops Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa), Kañiwa (Chenopodium Pallidicaule), Kiwicha (Amaranthus Caudatus), and Tarwi (Lupinus Mutabilis)
The effect of addition of flours from highly nutritious Andean crops quinoa, kañiwa, kiwicha and tarwi has been investigated in wheat doughs and fresh bread quality. The thermo-mechanical profile of wheat doughs and bread quality thereof has been explored by increasing substitution of wheat flour by Andean crop flours from 0 to 100%. Dough blends were evaluated by using the Chopin Mixolab® device, whereas bread quality assessment comprised sensory (overall acceptability) and physico-chemical (moisture, specific volume, texture, colour) determinations in composite breads.
In general, no breads with aerated crumb structure could be obtained from 100% Andean crop flours with the exception of quinoa breads that deserved overall sensory scores corresponding to 4.5/10 with no significant differences with respect to the breads made from the blends wheat:quinoa 50:50. Replacement of wheat flour by up to 12.5% (tarwi), 25% (kañiwa) and 50% (kiwicha) respectively led to variable coloured breads with good sensory perception coming from doughs with acceptable thermo-mechanical patterns. Partial substitution of wheat flour by Andean crop flours constitutes a viable alternative to improve the nutritional value of breads thereof in terms of quantitative and qualitative protein composition and bioactive components, being the technological performance of dough blends and composite breads acceptable.