Clonal Propagation of the Avocado: Effects of the Rooting Step on Graft Union Formation and Development
The etiolation and layering technique that is used on avocados has two critical steps, namely, the rooting of clonal rootstock and graft union formation between the commercial variety and clonal rootstock. This study analyzed the rooting step of the clonal rootstock regarding its influence on graft union formation and development. The optimum times for grafting the commercial variety onto clonal avocado rootstock were determined under two greenhouse conditions, heating and no heating. The results showed that under greenhouse conditions without heating, there was higher survival (%) in plants that were grafted 60 days after the rooting steps in the clonal scion, and, in the experiments in a heated greenhouse, the highest survival rate (%) was observed in plants that were grafted 15 days after the rooting treatments. For both assays, the lowest survival rate was observed for grafts performed 30 days after the wounding and auxin application process. In histological cross sections of rootstocks at the wounding zone and in auxin treatments, a large number of emerging adventitious roots were developed at 30 days.