Determination of the Proximate Composition, Total Carotenoid, Reducing Sugars and Residual Cyanide Levels of Flours of 6 New Yellow and White Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Varieties
The proximate composition, total carotenoid, reducing sugars and residual cyanide levels of flours of 6 elite yellow and white cassava varieties: UMUCASS 38, UMUCASS 36, UMUCASS 37, TMS05/0473, TMS05/1636 and TMS98/0505 were determined using standard techniques. Results indicated that all the cassava varieties had low moisture contents with TMS98/0505 having the highest moisture contents (12.28±0.95) than other varieties studied and TMS05/1636 having the least (8.40±0.00) while the reverse was the case for their dry matter contents which was observed to be high with TMS05/1636 having the highest dry matter (91.60±0.00) and TMS98/0505 having the least (87.73±0.95). There was no observed significant difference (p>0.05) in the crude fibre and ash contents of all the cassava varieties investigated. UMUCASS 37 was observed to have significantly higher quantities of fats (p<0.05) among the cassava varieties studied (2.75±0.31) while TMS05/1636 had the least (0.80±0.57). The flours were observed to have low residual cyanide which was higher with the yellow varieties compared with the white varieties. The yellow varieties were also observed to have higher quantities of reducing sugar and carotenoid compared with the white varieties. Results indicate that the yellow varieties may have dual utility both for human consumption and for industrial purposes while the white variety may be confined to domestic use. In addition, their low moisture and high dry matter contents suggest longer storage lives and better cooking qualities for the cassava varieties.