Effects of Bioactive Component of Kiwi Fruit and Avocado (Fruit and Seed) on Hypercholesterolemic Rats
This study evaluated the effect of kiwi fruit and avocado (fruit and seed) on diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats. The results showed that avocado seed content was the highest in phenolic compounds (285.43 mg/100g GAE); flavonoids (3.21mg/100g CE) and soluble dietary fiber (38%) followed by avocado and kiwi fruits. Kiwi fruit is rich in ascorbic acid (15.52 mg/100g). Hypercholesterolemia was induced using a diet containing 1% cholesterol and 16%fat. Sixty six male of Albino rats weighing 115-120g were randomly distributed into eleven groups of six rats each-Group 1: control rats fed on the standard diet, group 2 rats fed on hypercholesterolemic diet, while the other groups of rats fed hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with kiwi fruit and avocado (fruit and seed) (10%, 20% and 30%).The present study showed that 1% cholesterol and 16% fat administration for 6 weeks caused a significant increase P<0.05 in total cholesterol and triglyceride in both serum and liver. In serum, the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-C significantly decreased for the groups fed kiwi fruit and avocado (fruit and seed) in comparison with the hypercholesterolemic group (HC group). The activities of AST and ALT enzymes decreased significantly for the groups fed the kiwi fruit and avocado (fruit, seed) in comparison with the HC group. Atherogenic index (AI) increased significantly compared to control group. Regarding liver tissue, the levels of total cholesterol and triglyceride decreased significantly for the kiwi fruit and avocado (fruit, seed) fed rats compared to the HC group. The liver content of reduced glutathione increased significantly in comparison with the hypercholesterolemic group. In this study, the lowering effect of avocado seed on lipid profiles in serum and liver was more observable than that of avocado fruit or kiwi fruit. The results suggest that consumption of kiwi fruit and avocado (fruit and seed) might have some cardiovascular protective properties and beneficial effects on atherosclerosis, CVD risks in hypercholesterolemic rats. So, we recommended consuming avocado seed because the avocado seed have strong antioxidant activity and lower effect of lipid profile.