Handling of The White Grub Complex (Coleoptera: melolonthidae) Associated with Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) Crops in Puebla, Mexico
Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) is grown in dryland farming areas of Puebla, Mexico. One of the main factors that contributes to production losses is the white grub complex; vast quantities of insecticides are used to control it, but they do not manage to reduce damages. This study focuses on the effect of the agroecological handling of the white grub complex associated with amaranth crops (32 800 m2) and a population density diagnosis was carried out. For this purpose, a plot was divided as follows: an 8000 m2 (treatment); a 16 800 m2 barrier section; and an 8000 m2 control section; after the land was prepared for sowing, a mercury light trap with a sheet was placed in the first one. After the diagnosis, 280 third-stage larvae of the Paranomala and Strigoderma genus were collected. The adult melolonthidae flight period began on May 9 and ended on June 22. Seventy percent of the sample was composed by the Phyllophaga genus, while Phyllophaga ilhuicaminai and Ph. Ravida were the most abundant species. Soil sampling was carried out on February, 2014, and 417 larvae of the white grub complex in all were collected, of the Phyllophaga, Paranomala, Strigoderma and Diplotaxis genera. The statistical analysis showed a significant difference (p≤0.001) in the amount of larvae and a greater output (26.79%) in the plants of the treatment section, compared with those in the control section.