Horticultural Production of Ultra High Resveratrol Peanut
Resveratrol naturally occurring antioxidant in peanut (Legume: Arachis hypogaea) has phytochemical human health dietary effects associated with reduced inflammatory cancer risks. Its levels in peanut are ultra-low and variable (0 to 26 µg∙g−1 ), which has made it difficult to market as a consistent high resveratrol produce. Objective: Understanding the regulation of resveratrol accumulation in peanut might lead to development of new techniques for optimizing and stabilizing its yield. Method: Peanuts were cultivated in horticultural field plots and treated with solutions of mineral salts (sulfate, potassium, phosphate, ammonium ion) that were optimized in stoichiometric (reactive) ratios. Peanut seed’s RNAs were subjected to Northern blot analysis for profiling the RNAs synthesized by glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), and mRNAs encoding resveratrol synthase. The seed’s extracts were analyzed by GC-MS for determination of the resveratrol and fatty acid compositions. Result: Stoichiometric mixes of mineral ions induced the peanut GDH to synthesize some RNA that silenced the mRNAs encoding resveratrol synthase, phosphoglucomutase, isocitrate lyase, malate synthase, enolase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, malate dehydrogenase, and phosphoglycerate mutase in the control, KN-, and NPKS-treated but not in the NPPK-treated peanut. These resulted to decreased resveratrol content (6.0 µg∙g−1 ) in the control peanut but maximized it (1.15 mg∙g−1 ) in the NPPK-treated peanut. Therefore, resveratrol accumulation was optimized by coupling of glycolysis and citricglyoxylic acid cycles to resveratrol biosynthesis. Fatty acid content of control (55.6 g∙kg−1 ) was higher than the NPKS-treated (48.5 g∙kg−1 ) and NPPKtreated peanut (44.9 g∙kg−1 ) meaning that malonyl-CoA intermediate in both fatty acid and stilbenoid pathways was diverted to support maximum resveratrol biosynthesis in the NPPK-treated peanut. Conclusion: The functional coupling of citric-glyoxylic acid cycles and glycolysis to optimize resveratrol biosynthesis may encourage development of horticultural technology specific for production of ultra-high resveratrol peanuts.