Mineral and Proximate Composition of Cashew Apple (Anarcadium occidentale L.) Juice from Northern Savannah, Forest and Coastal Savannah Regions in Ghana
In this study, variations in the mineral, phenol, tannin, vitamin C and sugar composition of cashew apple juice from three agro-ecological zones (Northern Savannah, Forest and Coastal Savannah) of Ghana were investigated. The mean proximate composition (mg/100 mL) was as follows: phenolics (269.5), condensed tannins (266.0), Vitamin C (231.4) and sugars (12.05 mg mL-1). The mineral composition (mg/100 mL) showed potassium (76.0) to be the highest, followed by calcium (43.0), magnesium (10.92), phosphorous (0.79) and sodium (0.41). Zinc, copper and iron concentrations were much lower and ranged from 0.05-0.08 mg/100 mL. The physicochemical properties of the juice were as follows: pH (4.31), colour (light yellow for juice from yellow apples and yellow with traces of red pigments for juice from red apples). Phenol and tannin contents in the juice showed significant (p<0.05) variation among the ecological zones. Thus, apples from the Forest transitional zone appear to be better for juice extraction because of their relatively low tannin, higher pH, higher sugar and less phenolic content. No significant differences in the quantitative composition of calcium, iron, zinc and phosphorus could be attributed to the ecological zone or colour from which the juice was extracted.