Minimizing Adverse Effects of Salinity in Vineyards
This study was aimed to examine the effect of some materials namely humic acid, Uni-sal, magnetic iron and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to avoid or minimize salt hazard on grapevines growth and production during 2010 and 2011 seasons. This study was applied in a private vineyard at Al-Alamine district on five years old Thompson Seedless grapevines that irrigated using drip irrigation system and planted in saline sandy soil (Ec= 4.2 ds/m) at 2 x 3 meters apart. All grapevines were pruned and trellised by Gable system. Eight treatments were done as follows: control (untreated vines): humic acid (6 and 9 liter/feddan) and (Uni-sal 4 and 6 liter/feddan). All treatments were applied equal batches three times, firstly, at growth start, secondly, after berry set, thirdly, three weeks later after setting. While magnetic iron (100 and 150 kg / feddan) and Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) (175 kg/Feddan) were added once just after carrying out winter pruning. The obtained results appeared that all treatments were very effective in stimulating growth parameters (main shoot length), total leaf area/vine and coefficient of wood ripening. Chlorophyll, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron percentages in leaves and total carbohydrates in the canes were also increased. On the contrary, leaf proline amino acid, sodium and chloride content was decreased by increasing the rates of any treatment. Yield expressed in weight and numbers of cluster/vine, cluster weight, berry weight and size, total soluble solids, total soluble solids/total acidity were increased. Whereas total acidity was reduced affecting by high rates of any treatment. The results also indicated that increasing rates of treatment had reduced Ec of soil. Application of humic acid and Uni-sal were more effecting in reducing salinity of soil, improving growth, yield and berry quality characters. Generally, the best treatments were 9 liter/feddan humic acid or 6 liter/feddan Uni-sal. The both treatments were more effective in reducing Ec from 4.2 ds/m in soil to
(1.8 humic acid and 1.9 Uni-sal) ds/m, respectively and avoiding the adverse effects of soil salinity on growth and fruiting of vines comparing with other treatments used. Also, Yield and berries quality were promoted these promising materials.