The Nutritional Composition of Three Cultivars of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Seeds Flour
This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional analysis of the three Egyptian cultivars of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) seeds namely: Balady Assiut (BA), Balady Qena (BQ) and Pusa Sawany (PS). The proximate chemical composition, caloric value, minerals (K, Mg, Ca, Na and P), total phenolics and total flavonoids were determined in okra seeds flour (OSF) and defatted okra seeds flour (DOSF). In the dry weight basis OSF and DOSF significantly (p<0.05) contained moisture 1.23-10.54%, ash 5.76-10.84%, protein 22.30-37.02%, oil 2.65-23.99%, crude fiber 9.62-17.00%, total carbohydrates 29.44-44.03% and caloric value 327.29-440.91 kcal/100g. The mean values of total phenolics, total flavonoids revealed that significantly different at (P<0.05) between samples of OSF and DOSF. In the present study the PS cultivar recorded higher contents of total phenolics (969.24, 846.82 mg gallic acid/100 g D.W) and total flavonoids (15.14, 19.69 mg catechin/100g D.W) in both OSF and DOSF, respectively, as compared to BA and BQ cultivars. The mineral contents in samples under study were found as potassium 3.13-5.48, phosphorus 0.80-1.31, magnesium 0.44-0.78, calcium 0.25-0.49 and sodium 0.03-0.35 g/100g D.W. In terms of essential amino acids the PS DOSF was higher in leucine (7.42%), lysine (5.77%), valine (5.31%), phenylalanine (5.12%) and threonine (3.37%) when compared to BA and BQ DOSF. The major non-essential amino acids in DOSF of BA, BQ and PS were glutamic (12.73-17.60%), aspartic (8.51-11.66%) and arginine (7.96-10.64%). The highest protein efficiency ratio (PER) in (PS) was (2.47), while the lowest value of protein efficiency ratio was (1.58) found in (BQ). The biological value (BV) of protein was found with values: 75.10, 69.73 and 65.73 in PS, BA and BQ, respectively. The sensory evaluation scores of chicken nuggets were observed to be significantly (P<0.05) higher in nuggets with 5% incorporation of BQ and PS DOSF as compared with control. Consequently, it recommended utilizing and consumption in different food formula in order to consider a source of protein and oil.