Physiochemical Variables and Frying Quality of Potato Clones Developed for The Highlands of Mexico
Potato cultivars produced in high and cold places, such as the zone of Central México, generally have high contents of reducing sugars, preventing their use for the elaboration of potato chips. The objective of this study was to determine the physicochemical variables and the frying quality of 35 potato clones, developed for the highlands of Mexico, and four cultivars (Alpha, Lupita, Malinche, and Montserrat) produced in the spring-summer cycle of 2009, at 3500 m above sea level at Raíces, Zinacantepec, in the Estado de México. The experimental design was a completely randomized. In tubers specific gravity, dry matter, starch, reducing sugars, and flesh color were evaluated; in chips, yield, color, and fracturability. The results were analyzed, based on cluster analysis and canonical discriminant analysis. Four clones, 02-4, 02-4R, 99-4, and 02-93, were identified, outstanding by their good quality for chip industry. They showed low content of moisture and reducing sugars, high contents of dry matter, starch, specific gravity, and high yield of chips with excellent fracturability and color. The remaining clones and cultivars had important content of reducing sugars, susceptibility to non-enzymatic browning, and lower quality variables than those demanded by industry. The high correlations between variables allowed generating several linear equations with possible utility for the INIFAP Potato Genetic Improvement Program in order to predict these variables without the need of conducting chemical analyses.