Polyphenols in Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): Chemistry, Analysis, and Factors Affecting Composition
Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the most important grain legumes worldwide. Polyphenols are the predominant bioactive components with multifold bioactivities in diverse common bean cultivars. Phenolic acids, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins are the main polyphenols in common beans, and colorful common beans are overall rich in polyphenols, mainly in their pigmented seed coats. In addition, factors of influence, such as genotype, environmental conditions, storage, and processing methods, play a critical role in the content and composition of common bean polyphenols. Besides, analytical methods, including extraction, separation, and identification, are of importance for precise and comparable evaluation of polyphenols in common beans. Therefore, in order to provide a comprehensive and updated understanding of polyphenols in common beans, this review first summarizes the content and different compositions of polyphenols in common beans, and next discusses the factors affecting these compositions, followed by introducing the analytical methods for common bean polyphenols, and finally highlights the antioxidant activity of polyphenols in common beans. Considering the recent surge in interest in the use of grain legumes, we hope this review will further stimulate work in this field by providing a blueprint for further analytical studies to better utilize common bean polyphenols in food products to improve human nutrition.