Quantification of Flavonoids in Brazilian Orange Peels and Industrial Orange Juice Processing Wastes
The flavonoid content in orange peels of different Brazilian citrus varieties such as bahia, lima, lima-of-persian, morcote, pera, ponkan, seleta, cravo, kinkan and pomelo was assessed. Industry processing juice wastes such as bagasse, bagasse residues, animal feeding bagasse, pulp WEUE and CORE-wash were also analyzed. The HPLC analysis indicates that the most abundant flavonoids found in these Brazilian citrus peels are hesperidin and naringin. The solvents used are selective for flavonoid extraction, and depending on their polarity, glycoside or aglycone flavonoids are extracted. The use of multivariate analysis shows that DMSO is the best solvent to extract glycosides flavanones while hexane displays high selectivity in the extraction of polymethoxylated flavones. The flavonoids present in the orange wastes, obtained at different stages of the industrial processing, are qualitative and quantitatively different. The identification and quantification of the flavonoid composition in each Brazilian citrus variety were evaluated and allowed the selection of the best solvent for the extraction of each specific class of flavonoids. These compounds were found to be more abundant in the fruit peels than in their juices, revealing their great industrial potential. The residual portion of the processing juices is also rich in flavonoids, depending on the processing step.