Studies on the Application of Nano-fortified Interesterified Olein: Stearin Vegetable Butter in Biscuits Preparation and Its Nutritional Evaluation
Objective: This study is concerned about using nanotechnology in the preparation and fortification of vegetable butter (margarine) in order to improve the absorption and bioavailability of added nutrients and hence to increase the nutritional value of food products. Methodology: Olein: stearin fat blends (70:30 and 60:40 w/w) were chemically interesterified for 45 min using different conditions of temperature (60 and 80EC) and catalysts (0.6 and 0.4%NaOH:glycerol:H2 O (1:2:3 w/w) or 0.2% sodium methoxide). The interesterified blends were subjected to FTIR analysis to ensure the absence of trans acids and evaluated for their triglyceride structure and solid fat content. Results: The best results were recorded and the best sample was used to prepare two vegetable butter samples (speed only and 6-cycles), which were fortified with natural sources for omega fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and antioxidants using high speed and high pressure homogenizers, respectively. Transmittance Electron Microscope (TEM) images showed that the particle size of 6-cycles vegetable butter lies in the nano-range. Produced vegetable butter samples and market vegetable butter were applied to prepare biscuits which are known as a common food product. The prepared biscuits were evaluated for their chemical composition, color measurements, physical properties and sensory evaluation, then used in diet in the nutritional experiments. Conclusion: Results showed that applying fortified vegetable butter samples in biscuits preparation enhanced somephysical properties, taste and mouth feel score but had no effect on its chemical composition. Also, nutrition results showed that both vegetable butter samples have beneficial effects on lipid profile levels and can be protective against hyperlipedemia and in turn possible atherosclerosis.