UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Caneberries
Caneberry plants consist of perennial crowns and root systems and biennial vegetative shoots, or canes. The vegetative shoots of caneberries are referred to as primocanes and the flowering and fruiting canes are referred to as floricanes. Normally, these stages of cane are separated by one growing season; however, more contemporary varieties of caneberries grow vegetatively and flower and fruit in one year. These newer varieties are known as primocane-fruiting cultivars. In addition, in many areas of California caneberries may not pass through clearly evident growth stages because of the lack of a winter dormant period; they just progress from vegetative stages into reproductive growth.
Regardless of the age of the cane, once flowering begins, productive caneberry cultivars can be managed for an extended harvest on primocanes or floricanes if care is taken to manage the cane canopy, foliage, flowers, and fruits with pruning, fertility, and pest management to protect them from mites, insects, and diseases. Careful irrigation management is also important so that plants are not stressed during critical flower and fruit development periods. Crowns and underground portions of caneberries can be susceptible to soilborne bacterial and fungal diseases. In areas where drainage is limited or slow, both types of caneberries are routinely planted on raised beds to minimize disease.
Caneberry plantings can last many years, but current intensive management systems emphasize primocane fruiting cultivars planted at relatively high density that are only harvested for 1 to 2 years before the planting is replaced. While more management intensive, this production system allows more control over harvest season, yield, and fruit quality.