3. History and aims of certification systems
7. Fruits and vegetables
8. Contextual factors influencing certification costs and benefits
11. Future outlook – four scenarios for future developments around certification
We identified and explained the contractual choices of Mexican coffee traders in selling their product and analyzed the traders´ performance. The data were obtained from personal interviews with 53 intermediaries in four coffee producing regions of the states of Oaxaca and Veracruz, Mexico. Marketing margins were used as an indicator of traders’ performance. The results indicate that being a roaster, having a wet processing plant and selling cherry coffee negatively affects the use of contracts whereas being vertically integrated has a positive effect.
Effect of Different Roasting Levels and Particle Sizes on Ochratoxin A Concentration in Coffee Beans
Contamination of roasted coffee with ochratoxin A (OTA) is directly related to the processing quality throughout the coffee production chain, from the farming to the roasting processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of roasting and particle size on the residual concentration of ochratoxin A in roasted and ground coffee. Coffee beans were artificially contaminated with Aspergillus ochraceus. The beans were roasted to three levels (light, medium and dark) and ground into three types (fine, medium and coarse) after an incubation period.
The first global data report on fast-growing voluntary sustainability standards outlines the share of bananas, cocoa, coffee, cotton, forestry, palm oil, soybeans, cane sugar and tea in 14 major standards. The report is based on a partnership between the Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL), the International Institute of Sustainable Development (IISD) and ITC, and is supported by the Swiss State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO).
Paper focusing on the contribution of the coffee value chain to climate change and the effects of climate change on global coffee production with particular reference to smallholder coffee producers in developing and least developed countries – reviews the opportunities to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the coffee industry; provides examples of individual initiatives to reduce product carbon footprints and the opportunities for mainstreaming these in the coffee value chain; critically assesses the relevance of carbon credit markets for smallholder farmers; highlights the