National benchmarking against GLOBALGAP: Case studies of Good Agricultural Practices in Kenya, Malaysia, Mexico and Chile
This desk study examines the experiences and lessons learned from four case studies of countries aiming at the GLOBALGAP benchmarking procedure for na. tional Good Agricultural Practices, namely Chile, Kenya, Malaysia, and Mexico. Aspects that determine the origin and character of the benchmarking process are the current and future export markets of each country; the ownership of the National GAP Schemes, that is, government or private sector. Government.led GAP initiatives are part of strategic sector wide policies that includes legislation. Private sector.led food quality systems tend to be more directed at compliance with international standards. In all the country cases certification is voluntary, but third.party certification tends enhance international credibility.