Some Quality Components of Four Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) Genotypes Grown under Tropical Coastal Desert Ecosystem Conditions
A chia (Salvia hispanica L.) trial in the Santa Elena Peninsula of Ecuador consisted of 4 genotypes (Tzotzol, Iztac 1, Iztac 2 and Miztic) sown on January 15, 2007 in replicated plots to assess production and composition. Seed yield was affected by genotype, with Miztic and Tzotzol producing significantly (p<0.05) greater yields than the Iztac II genotype, but not more than Iztac I which was not significantly (p<0.05) different from Iztac II. Iztac II had the highest protein content (24.43%), however the difference was significantly (p<0.05) different only from Iztac I. Neither Iztac II nor Iztac I were significantly (p<0.05) different from either the Tzotzol or Miztic genotypes. No significant difference (p<0.05) in lipid content was found among genotypes. Miztic and Iztac II, with 20.23% and 20.03%, respectively had significantly (p<0.05) higher linoleic fatty acid percentages than the 19.23% of the Iztac I genotype. Iztac I had the highest α-linolenic fatty acid percentage (61.73) and this was significantly (p<0.05) different than the 58.37% found for the Iztac II genotype. All of the genotypes showed a similar relationship among compounds, that being caffeic acid>chlorogenic acid> quercetin>kaempherol. In summary, the effect of genotype was more evident on seed yield than protein content, oil content, fatty acid composition and phenolic compounds, hence yield needs to be the main factor when considering establishment of chia as a crop in the area.