Antifungal Activity of Leaf and Stem Extracts from various Plant Species on the Incidence of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides of Papaya and Mango Fruit after Storage
Aqueous extracts of leaves and stems of Achras sapota, Annona reticulata, Bromelia hemisphaerica, Carica papaya, Citrus limon, Chrysophylum cainito, Dyospiros ebenaster, Mangifera indica, Persea americana, Pouteria sapota,Spondias purpurea, and Tamarindus indicus from the state of Morelos, Mexico were tested for their antifungal activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in in vitro and in vivo experiments. Papaya and mango fruit were dipped in extracts, inoculated with C. gloeosporioides, and stored for seven days at room temperature to evaluate percentage infection and severity, solid solubles concentration (SSC), and fruit mass loss. Differences were found between the inhibitory effects in vitro and in vivo. Leaf extracts from C. limon and P.americana totally inhibited growth of C. gloeosporioides in vitro. Leaf extracts of C. papaya completely inhibited postharvest rots of papaya, while leaf and stem extracts of D.ebenaster had an adequate fungicidal effect when applied to mango. Infection severity of papaya ranged from 0 to 50% ofthe fruit surface, while in mango only 25% of the surface was affected. Overall, infection severity was reduced for both papaya and mango when dipped in extracts. SSC and fruit mass loss varied among plant extracts; however, extracts did not affect fruit quality during storage.