Biological Management of Damping-Off, Buckeye Rot and Fusarial Wilt of Tomato (cv. Solan Lalima) under Mid-Hill Conditions of Himachal Pradesh
Disease management is often complicated by the presence of multiple types of pathogens; in an organic system, it is appropriate to develop disease control strategies. The available literature so far reflects that the management of important disease of tomato is through the integrated approaches and very few organic approaches have been tried with various degree of success. Boiopriming of seeds with biocontrol agents (Trichoderma viridae, Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens) in combination with different biofertilizers (Azotobacter, Azospirillum and PSB) and organic manures (FYM and vermi-compost) were tested against disease incidence and health management of tomato seedling under nursery as well as field conditions. The studies were conducted during two successive years (2012-2013) at farmer’s field with the objective to combat with the increasing disease incidence of three major disease damping-off, fusarium wilt and buckeye rot from nursery stage to the final harvesting. The study focused on the use of biocontrol agents as the suitable alternative to chemical pesticides with sustainable disease management without pesticide residues in foodstuff. The bio priming of seeds with fungal antagonist Trichoderma viridae and harzianum and bacterial antagonist Pseudomonas fluorescens significantly improved the germination behavior of tomato seeds as compared to untreated control. Highest mean germination (93.1%) and seedling vigour (953.33) was recorded in Treatment 3 (FYM @ 200 q/ ha + Azospirillum + PSB + Trichoderma herzianum (4 kg/ha each) and lowest in control (60.3%) and (304.83), thus indicating a significant per cent increase in seedling emergence (54.4%) and seedling vigour (95.23%). A considerable reduction in disease incidence (pre and post) of damping off was observed in treatment T₃ and T₄ (VC @ 50 q/ha + Azospirillum + PSB + Trichoderma herzianum @ (4 kg/ha) with 45.6% and 35.4% respectively). Treatment T₃ proved highest in terms of yield (665 Kg/Ha), Hence these diseases can be managed by successful application of Biocontrol agents.