CBI Product Factsheet: Fresh Chilli Peppers in Europe
The European market for fresh chilli peppers is a specialised market, which is supplied primarily by producers in Southern Europe, Turkey and Northern Africa. Opportunities can be found in specific varieties.
The chilli pepper is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum. Red chillies contain large amounts of vitamin C and small amounts of carotene (provitamin A). Considerably lower amounts of both substances are contained in yellow and, especially, green chillies (which are essentially unripe fruit). Peppers are also a good source of most B vitamins, particularly vitamin B6. They are very high in potassium, magnesium and iron. The substances that give chilli peppers their intensity are called capsaicinoids.
The five domesticated species of chilli peppers are as follows:
- Capsicum annuum: (Varieties including wax, cayenne, jalapeño and chiltepin)
- Capsicum baccatum: (South American aji peppers)
- Capsicum chinense: (Naga, habanero, Datil and Scotch bonnet)
- Capsicum frutescens: (Malagueta, tabasco and Thai peppers, piri piri, and Malawian Kambuzi)
- Capsicum pubescens: (South American rocoto peppers)