Chemical Quality of Common Beans as Influenced by Genotype and Aluminium Rates Under Two Soil Liming Regimes
Soil acidity affects seed yield and crop quality negatively due to aluminium toxicity in most humid tropics where the crop is cultivated for food and cash income by smallholder farmers. This study was conducted to assess the effect of different exchangeable aluminium concentrations on bean chemical quality of two common bean genotypes grown on lime-treated and lime-untreated soils. Factorial combinations of five aluminium rates (0.0, 12.5, 25.0, 50.0, and 100.0 mg Al/ kg soil) and two common bean genotypes (New BILFA 58 and Roba 1) were laid out in a completely randomized design with three replications. For each treatment, four plants were raised per pot in the vegetation hall of Nekemte Soil Laboratory, western Ethiopia. The experiment was established in two sets: lime-treated soil and lime-untreated soil. The results revealed that aluminium toxicity caused major changes in the composition of the common beans. Significant differences (P < 0.01) were found among the different aluminium rates and between the two genotypes for bean crude protein, crude fibre, crude fat, and ash, carbohydrate, calcium, magnesium, and aluminium contents under both liming regimes. The interaction of aluminium and genotype also influenced most of the bean chemical quality attributes negatively. New BILFA 58 (acidic soil tolerant genotype) had better bean chemical quality attributes (except aluminium and condensed tannins contents) than Roba 1 (acidic soil sensitive genotype) under both liming regimes. On the average, lime application increased bean crude protein, crude fat, ash, and calcium contents by 4.1%, 20.7%, 7.9%, and 11.7%, respectively. However, it decreased bean crude fibre and aluminium contents. Bean carbohydrate and condensed tannin contents of the genotypes increased in response to increasing aluminium application under both liming regimes. The total ash, which is an indirect indicator of the mineral content of foodstuffs, was found to be higher for New BILFA 58 than Roba 1 under both liming regimes. In conclusion, the results of this study have demonstrated that increased soil aluminium contents have significant negative effects on common bean quality, but integrated use of tolerant genotypes and application of lime can simultaneously alleviate the problem of low yield and reduced bean nutritional quality of the crop.