Effect of Germination and Heat Treatment on Chemical Composition and Bioactive Components of Fenugreek Seeds
Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) can be considered as a good source of many nutrients such as protein, dietary fibers, minerals and polyphenols along with high antioxidant activity but despite its promised nutritional value most people do not prefer it in their diets due to presence of alkaloids and some volatile compounds which are responsible for bitterness and bad odor sweat. So that present study aimed to estimate the effect of germination process and heat treatment on chemical composition, minerals, polyphenols, ascorbic acid, antioxidant activity, dietary fibers, alkaloids and volatile compounds in fenugreek seeds. Data confirmed that fenugreek is a good source of protein, minerals and polyphenols whereas the last is responsible for a high antioxidant activity of fenugreek. Germination of fenugreek seeds resulted in increment of protein, fibers, ash, P, Na, Ca, Zn, polyphenols and antioxidant activity but decreased each of fat, nitrogen free extract, K, Mg, Fe and alkaloids. Meanwhile, boiling of fenugreek seeds increased each of nitrogen free extract, alkaloids and decreased each of protein, ash, P, Ca, Zn, dietary fibers, polyphenols, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity compared with raw fenugreek seeds. Boiled fenugreek seeds possessed the highest number of separated volatile compounds followed by raw and germinated fenugreek seeds respectively. Data in present study confirmed ability of germination process to increment of nutritional value of fenugreek seeds and decreasing each of alkaloids and volatile compounds to produce a fenugreek seeds more suitable for consumers.