Enhancing the Nutritive Values of Ice Milk Based on Dry Leaves and Oil of Moringa oleifera
Objective: Moringa oleifera , described as an important nutritional supplement with a variety of pharmaceutical and functional properties. Therefore, the main purposed of this study was to improve the nutritional value and sensory quality of fortified ice milk by blending with Moringa oleifera dry leaves (MODL) and Moringa oleifera oil (MOO). Methodology: The MODL was combined into ice milk at three different concentrations (0.5, 1 and 1.5%) substituted with the milk solids not fat (MSNF) 12%, while ice milk base mix by MOO was prepared to contain 4, 6 and 8% oil as source of fat. Results: Addition of MODL increased the specific gravity, pH, total solid, overrun, fiber, minerals and vitamins (B1, B2, B6) content of ice milk. Also, adding MOO increased the total solid, oleic acid and vitamin E ("-tocopherol) content of ice milk. Furthermore, viscosity, melting resistance, cytotoxic activity and antioxidant activity increased in fortified ice milk with the addition of MOO and MODL. All these studied parameters improved with raising ratios of added MOO and MODL. Sensory evaluation revealed that the addition of MODL at ratio of 0.5% was higher than other treatments fortified with MODL. Moreover, the total score with comparable acceptability of ice milk with 4 and 8% MOO was lower than 6%. Conclusion: For the emergence of fortified foods by this nutraceuticales, it was recommended that MODL can be used at 0.5% addition and MOO can be used at 6% addition to formulate fortified ice milk to increased health benefits and suitable sensory aspects.