Performance of Improved Bean Varieties in Kasulu and Kibondo Districts of Kigoma Region, Tanzania
A project aimed at improving bean production in Kigoma Region was carried out from 2008/09 to 2010/11 in Kasulu and Kibondo districts. Soils at trial sites varied from sandy clay loams to clay, mostly acidic with pH water varying from 4.5 to 6.3 (mean 5.5 +- 0.5) with low to medium (1.86% +- 0.57%) organic carbon (OC), low (0.15 +- 0.05) total nitrogen (N), and low to medium (5.27 +- 5.4 mg/kg) available phosphorus (P). Five improved cultivars, Jesca, Lyamungo 90, Selian 97, Uyole Njano and Uyole 98 were evaluated for yield in farmers’ fields, and assessed for farmer acceptability through a questionnaire. The varieties were compared to Kigoma Yellow, a local variety known also as Mburamutwe. The experimental design was Randomized Complete Block with farmers as replicates. Plot size was 10 m by 10 m and spacing was 50 cm by 20 cm. Yield data were analyzed using MS X-Cel and GenStat Discovery edition. Farmers’ assessment data were analyzed by SPSS (V 11.5). There were positive significant (p<0.05) correlations between bean yields of the varieties Jesca, Lyamungo 90, and Selian 97 and soil exchangeable potassium (K), and positive significant (p<0.05) correlations between Kigoma yellow and soil available P and between Selian 97 and soil total nitrogen in the first season. In Kasulu, average yields were less than those obtained in Kibondo and ranged from 495 +- 169 kgha-1 for Jesca to 874 +- 583 kgha-1 for Uyole 98, compared to the range of 673 +- 283 kgha-1 for Jesca to 1602 333 kgha-1 for Uyole Njano in Kibondo district. The results showed that Uyole Njano and Uyole 98 gave significantly (p<0.05) higher yields than all the other varieties. Farmers’ assessed uncooked beans for seed size, shape, color, marketability and over all preference. Assessment of cooked beans considered taste, smell, soup appearance, soup color and consistence. This assessment ranked Kigoma yellow and Uyole Njano as number one and two, respectively for both uncooked and cooked beans. Lyamungo 90 and Uyole 98 ranked third and fourth, respectively for uncooked beans. There were no differences in costs of production between the different bean varieties. Economic analysis (Table 3) showed that Uyole Njano produced the highest yield value per unit cost of production followed by Uyole 98. Introduction of Uyole Njano and Uyole 98 bean varieties for production in the two districts is recommended.