Detoxification of Olive-mill Solid Waste and its Probable Application as Organic Fertilizer
Despite the phytotoxicity of olive-mill solid waste (OMSW) due to its high polyphenols content, OMSW have fertilizer characteristics, which make it a potential source for organic fertilization. Composting of OMSW treatment process was conducted in this study to eliminate the phytotoxicity and solve the environmental impact of this waste. Recycling of OMSW was carried out via composting of six batches of trials using equal proportions of OMSW, cow manure (C) and wheat straw (W). The treatment process was performed at two time intervals (two and five months), after each one, the recipient species (Vicia faba L.) was planted. The results showed the efficiency of composting in reducing OMSW original toxicity after two months than five months. The germination percentage and the plumule and radicle lengths of V. faba showed a significant improvement when the OMSW was composted with C at different proportions before using as soil amendments. Besides, the total biomass was noticeably increased at the high concentration of C-OMSW. Similarly, the total pigments concentration in V. faba was increased by using various composts after two months, where the highest pigment content was observed at 40% W-OMSW treatment.
The maximum uptake of potassium and sodium was recorded through the application of W-OMSW compost to soil after two months. Furthermore, the C-OMSW composts showed the highest concentration of nitrogen, calcium, iron and manganese. However, the C-W-OMSW composts recorded the highest concentration of phosphorous, magnesium and copper. Finally, this study developed a low cost treatment that will enable the growers to convert OMSW into a natural nontoxic compost rich with essential nutrients which have positive effects on plants growth.