Valorization of Apple Pomace by Extraction of Valuable Compounds

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Apple pomace is a promising source of carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, fatty acids, phenolic compounds, vitamins, and other compounds with a vast range of food applications. This review focuses on the valorization of apple pomace towards the recovery of the main compounds, namely pectin and polyphenols. Applications, advantages, and drawbacks of conventional extraction (acidic medium under high temperatures) compared with novel extraction technologies are presented. The comparison is based on an extensive literature review of research on extraction of valuable compounds from plant matrixes, particularly apple pomace. Novel extraction techniques involving enzymes, electric field, ultrasound, microwave heating, pressurized liquid, and super/subcritical fluid are also discussed. These techniques offer several advantages, including shorter extraction time, increased yield, reduction—or suppression—of solvents, and minimization of the environmental impact. This paper may help researchers and food industry professionals on the scaling-up and optimization of eco-friendly extractions of pectin and phenolic compounds. 
Camila A. Perussello
Zhihang Zhang
Antonio Marzocchella
Brijesh K. Tiwari
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety