World Pineapple Production: An Overview
This review paper discusses the origin, production, cultivation practices, storage, transportation and uses of pineapple. The economic importance of pineapple is easily justified by its unique characteristics as a fruit, which ensured its rapid diffusion and adoption, in the tropics and subtropics. Pineapple is a perennial monocotyledonous plant with a terminal multiple fruit. This perishable fruit is usually stored only for 4-5 days after harvesting in normal conditions. Generally, ripened pineapple fruit is consumed fresh or as pineapple juice. Thailand, Philippines, Mexico, Costa Rica, Chile, Brazil, China, Indonesia, Hawaii, India, Bangladesh, Nigeria, Kenya, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ivory Coast, Guinea, Dominican Republic and South Africa are the leading pineapple producing countries. Among the countries Philippines, Thailand, Costa Rica, Indonesia, Chile, Ivory Coast and South Africa are the major exporters of pineapple in the world market. Quality of pineapple varies due to cultivation technique, growing environment and variety. Good quality pineapple grows well in acidic loams, sandy loams and clay loams soils under warm and humid climate with sunny days and cool nights. Pineapples need a neutral to mildly acidic soil ranging pH from 4.5 to 6.5. Pineapple reproduction is through vegetative propagation using suckers and crowns. Fertilizer requirement increases sharply after planting and peak at two to four months before floral initiation. Earthing up operation gives better anchorage to the plants. Mulch promotes rooting by concentrating moisture, increasing soil temperature in the root zone and controlling weeds. Irregular flowering behavior of pineapples also affects its commercial yield adversely. A variety of chemicals are available to achieve uniformity and control flowering. Storage and transportation facilities are the important factors for local and international marketing. Harvested fruits are packed in the crates and transported in refrigerated containers for quality assurance. The prospect of pineapple is bright due to increasing trend of total consumption and export potential.