Plant Catalog

Plant Catalog Index

Catálogo Plantas


Mungbean seeds are sprouted for fresh use or canned for shipment to restaurants. Sprouts are high in protein (21%–28%), calcium, phosphorus and certain vitamins. Because they are easily digested they replace scarce animal protein in human diets in tropical areas of the world. Because of their major use as sprouts, a high quality seed with excellent germination is required. The food industry likes to obtain about 9 or 10 grams of fresh sprouts for each gram of seed. Larger seed with a glassy, green color seems to be preferred.
If the mungbean seed does not meet sprouting standards it can be used as a livestock food with about 1.5 ton of mungbean being equivalent to 1.0 tons of soybean meal for protein content. Feeding trials have been conducted at Oklahoma State University for swine and young calves with good results.

E.S. Oplinger
L.L. Hardman
A.R. Kaminski
S.M. Combs
J.D. Doll
University of Wisconsin & University of Minnesota
Plant Catalog
Kangkong — Ipomoea aquatica Forsk., Ipomoea reptans Poir

Kangkong, also known as water glorybind, water spinach, water convolvulus, and swamp cabbage, is an important green leafy vegetable in Southeast Asia, Taiwan, and Malaysia. It is found throughout the fresh waters of southern China, and is cultivated in countries such as Ceylon. Kangkong has not become very popular elsewhere, particularly here in Florida where its production is discouraged. Our climate is favorable, and given wet soil conditions it would produce well here. Tight precautions should be taken to see that it does not become an established weed in our waterways. The Florida Department of Natural Resources must issue a special permit to anyone wanting to grow kangkong.
There are two forms: upland (dry) and swamp (wet). The plant looks somewhat like the pickerel weed of Florida lakes. The slick surfaced leaves are arrowhead-shaped, 5-6 inches long, narrow, and pointed. It is a trailing hollow vine with alternate leaves and vertical branches arising at the leaf axils. The succulent foliage is light green in color and produces a white flower, followed by a four-seeded pod. There are narrow and broadleaf types, some of which look a lot like sweet potato plants.

James M. Stephens
University of Florida, IFAS
Plant Catalog
Langsat (Lansium domesticum Corr.)

A somewhat less edible fruit of the family Meliaceae, the langsat, Lansium domesticum Corr., is also known as lansa, langseh, langsep, lanzon, lanzone, lansone, or kokosan, and by various other names in the dialects of the Old World tropics.
The tree is erect, short-trunked, slender or spreading; reaching 35 to 50 ft (10.5 to 15 m) in height, with red-brown or yellow-brown, furrowed bark. Its leaves are pinnate, 9 to 20 in (22.5-50 cm) long, with 5 to 7 alternate leaflets, obovate or elliptic-oblong, pointed at both ends, 2 3/4 to 8 in (7-20 cm) long, slightly leathery, dark-green and glossy on the upper surface, paler and dull beneath, and with prominent midrib. Small, white or pale-yellow, fleshy, mostly bisexual, flowers are home in simple or branched racemes which may be solitary or in hairy clusters on the trunk and oldest branches, at first standing erect and finally pendant, and 4 to 12 in (10-30 cm) in length.
The fruit, borne 2 to 30 in a cluster, is oval, ovoid-oblong or nearly round, 1 to 2 in (2.5-5 cm) in diameter, and has light grayish-yellow to pale brownish or pink, velvety skin, leathery, thin or thick, and containing milky latex. There are 5 or 6 segments of aromatic, white, translucent, juicy flesh (arils), acid to subacid in flavor. Seeds, which adhere more or less to the flesh, are usually present in 1 to 3 of the segments. They are green, relatively large–3/4 to 1 in (2-2.5 cm) long and 1/2 to 3/4 in (1.25-2 cm) wide, very bitter, and sometimes, if the flesh clings tightly to the seed, it may acquire some of its bitterness.

Julia F. Morton
Fruits of warm climates
Plant Catalog
History, Global Distribution, and Nutritional Importance of Citrus Fruits

Although the mysteries of its history and origin remain unsolved, worldwide cultivation and high-demand production for citrus fruit (genus Citrus in family Rutaceae) make it stand high among fruit crops. Growth of the citrus industry, including rapid development of the processing technology of frozen concentrated orange juice after World War II, has greatly expanded with international trade and steadily increased consumption of citrus fruits and their products during the past several decades. Characterized by the distinct aroma and delicious taste, citrus fruits have been recognized as an important food and integrated as part of our daily diet, playing key roles in supplying energy and nutrients and in health promotion. With low protein and very little fat content, citrus fruits supply mainly carbohydrates, such as sucrose, glucose, and fructose. Fresh citrus fruits are also a good source of dietary fiber, which is associated with gastrointestinal disease prevention and lowered circulating cholesterol. In addition to vitamin C, which is the most abundant nutrient, the fruits are a source of B vitamins (thiamin, pyridoxine, niacin, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, and folate), and contribute phytochemicals such as carotenoids, flavonoids, and limonoids. These biological constituents are of vital importance in human health improvement due to their antioxidant properties, ability to be converted to vitamin A (for example, β-cryptoxanthin), and purported protection from various chronic diseases.

YuQiu Liu
Emily Heying
Sherry A. Tanumihardjo
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety
Plant Catalog
Physicochemical characterization of the lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) Castilla variety in six ripening stages

Lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam) is considered a fruit with a high potential for exportation due to its exotic aroma, its bittersweet taste and the bright green color of its pulp. As a climacteric fruit is harvested when the fruit has reached full development, and 75% of the ripening is apparent by its characteristic yellow color with some small green points. However, this parameter is not enough to decide the right time for the crop, due to the irregularity of the fruits, especially for selling purposes in international markets, hence studies have been conducted to establish the changes during ripening and postharvest. Objectives: The aim of this work was to determine the relationship between color measurement and the other physicochemical parameters in the six ripening stages of lulo Castilla variety, in order to define the optimal harvesting time. Methods: Three fruits were studied for each stage, and were analyzed in the fresh state: ° Brix, pH, titratable acidity and color changes in the cortex, according to CIELab system. Results: The ranges obtained for the six evaluated stages were: ° Brix: 4.2 - 10.3, pH: 3.67 - 3.90, acidity: 2.63 - 3.00 and color (E): 0 - 53. We found that the epicarp of the fruit varies from green to yellow intense, indicating the maturity for consumption. Total soluble solids increased with fruit maturation and the tritatable acidity decreased reaching a minimum values at stage 3, which was considered optimum for harvesting. The pH increased in stage 5 due to the drop of vacuolar H+ ion concentration. Conclusion: By measuring color parameters, 3 ripening stages were defined: green (0, 1, 2); semi ripe (3, 4) and ripe (5).

Clara María Mejía D.
Duverney Gaviria A.
Alba Lucia Duque C.
Lucero Rengifo R.
Enrique Aguilar F.
Álvaro Hernán Alegría S.
Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia
Plant Catalog
Características del fruto de la pitahaya (Hylocereus sp.) y su potencial de uso en la industria alimentaria

Con esta revisión de literatura se buscó reunir información relacionada con las propiedades físico-químicas y morfológicas de la pitahaya (Hylocereus sp.). Se discute sobre las diferencias que se han observado entre diferentes genotipos cultivados en Costa Rica y sobre el comportamiento de los frutos durante su desarrollo. La pitahaya tiene gran potencial industrial debido a su alto contenido de betalaínas, pigmentos que han sido considerados como una alternativa al uso de colorantes artificiales en alimentos. Además, se ha observado que estos pigmentos poseen propiedades antioxidantes. Debido al gran potencial agroindustrial de la pitahaya, se ha incrementado el interés internacional en su cultivo, comercialización y la búsqueda de alternativas de procesamiento. Avances se exponen en el presente trabajo.

Patricia Esquivel
Yorleny Araya Quesada
Revista Venezolana de Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos
Plant Catalog
Black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa)

A member of the Rose family, black chokeberry is a deciduous shrub which can grow to a height of 3 to 12 feet tall. The fine-toothed leaves are medium green and hairless, with raised glands along the top of the midrib. In spring, the bisexual flowers form clusters that are 2 to 2 ½ inches across. The five petals are white, with pink anthers. The primary pollinators are small bees. As the seasons progress, the leaves turn a deep glossy green. In mid to late summer the fruit begins to form. As the pea-sized fruit ripens, it darkens to a purplish-black color. The fruit are pomes which will begin to drop from the plants shortly after ripening. The fruits are quite juicy, but will begin to shrivel up after ripening. The juice and seeds are deep purple in color. There are 1 to 5 small seeds per pome.

Michael Knudson
Plant Catalog
Innovaciones en el agrodesarrollo de las cactáceas

La globalización de los mercados ofrece nuevas oportunidades de desarrollo del campo en especial a recursos subutilizados en algunos países como las cactáceas, debido en parte a que, en cada país, los modelos culturales y de cultivo son diferentes. El cambio climático está generando nuevas dinámicas en dichos modelos que pueden llegar a ser sostenibles o disruptivas y las cáctaceas se presentan en ciertos aspectos como alternativas para la sustentabilidad de algunos sistemas; aunque también pueden verse afectadas. Lo expresado genera estudios diversos y en distintas especialidades. En este trabajo se presenta una recopilación de información existente y actualizada sobre temas relacionados con el aprovechamiento, la morfoanatomía, la germinación y desarrollo de las cactáceas, el cultivo in vitro, como también aspectos relativos a parámetros fisicoquímicos, la poscosecha y una reseña sobre cactáceas epífitas y/o trepadoras, las menos estudiadas.

Carlos Alberto Padrón Pereira
Revista Venezolana de Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos
Plant Catalog
Arracacha (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft)

Arracacha (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft) is the only umbellifer domesticated in South America and still largely confined to that continent in its distribution. There are numerous domesticated umbellifers from Eurasia, many of which form edible roots or other subterraneous storage organs, such as parsnip, parsley, carrot and celeriac. All these cultigens and the vast majority of other umbelliferous crops from the Old World are biennials and seed-propagated. Most remarkably, cultivated arracacha is a vegetatively propagated perennial. The recent discovery of wild Arracacia xanthorrhiza populations with tuberous storage roots could shed light on an old discussion of the origin of agriculture or, more specifically, on the reasons for the preponderance of vegetative propagation in South American crops as opposed to seed-based agriculture in the Old World (Hawkes 1969). Evidence for both biennial (in Peru) and perennial wild arracacha (in Ecuador) will be presented in this paper for the first time.

Michael Hermann
International Potato Center (CIP)
Plant Catalog
Pigments content, other compounds and antioxidant capacity in 12 cactus pear cultivars (Opuntia spp.) from México

The cactus pear (Opuntia spp.) is a phytogenetic resource of Mexico of high nutritious value whose native cultivars had not been previously characterized. The aim of this work was to study the content of some chemical compounds and the antioxidant potential in 12 pear cultivars, namely, Cristalina, Mansa and Vaquera (O. albicarpa), Amarilla Diamante (O. ficus-indica) and Mango (O. Albicarpa), Amarilla Montesa and Pico Chulo (O. megacantha), Pabellón (O. ficus-indica), Rosa de Castilla and Torreoja (O. megacantha), Cacalote (O. cochinera) and Tapón Aguanoso (O. robusta var Robusta).The work was conducted in the Departmento de Fitotecnia of the Universidad Autónoma Chapingo. The experimental design was completely randomized, and an analysis of variance and the Tukey mean comparison test were carried out. The ascorbic acid content was higher in Cacalote with 25 mg 100 g-1. The cultivars with white and yellow tuna showed more (p≤0.05) chlorophyll, while white tuna had less carotene. The higher contents (p≤0.05) of betacyanin and betaxanthin were found in Tapón Aguanoso and Cacalote with 681.94 and 428.96 mg L-1 of betanin and 276.10 and 249.55 mg L-1 of indicaxanthin.The highest concentration of phenols was present in Tapón Aguanoso (420.66 mg L-1), with purple fruit, and Amarilla Diamante (348.16 mg L-1) and Mango (328.74 mg L-1), with yellow fruit. The antioxidant capacity was similar in all cultivars, with concentrations between 6.12 and 9.58 µmol eq TROLOX g-1. The fruits tested, due to the presence of betalains, could be used to extract pigments and be utilized in industry as a source of natural pigments or natural source of antioxidants.

Inés Figueroa-Cares
María T. Martínez-Damián
Enrique Rodríguez-Pérez
María T. Colinas-León
Salvador Valle-Guadarrama
Sweetia Ramírez-Ramírez
Clemente Gallegos-Vázquez
Plant Catalog