Plant Catalog

Plant Catalog Index

Catálogo Plantas

Stevia rebaudiana: Its agricultural, biological, and chemical properties

Stevia rebaudiana is a member of the Compositae, native to Paraguay. It produces a number of high-potency low-calorie sweeteners in its leaf tissue. The sweeteners are diterpene glycosides and range between 30 and 320 times sweeter than sugar. Increasing consumer interest in natural food ingredients means that products like stevia sweeteners will be subject to increasing demand. Such demand will need to be supported by a modern mechanised production system. The purpose of this review is to summarize the existing agricultural, chemical and biochemical literature to provide a baseline for new research.

J. E. Brandle
A. N. Starratt
M. Gijzen
Canadian Journal of Plant Science
Plant Catalog
Caracterización de frutos de caimito (Chrysophyllum cainito L.), en el Estado de Morelos

El caimito, es un frutal nativo de las Antillas, que se encuentra bien adaptado en algunas zonas tropicales de México. Actualmente todos los materiales son de pie franco lo que implica gran variabilidad genética, por lo que en la región de Tetecala y Coatlán del Río Morelos, representa una fuente potencial para diversificar la agricultura de la región. En el presente trabajo se evaluaron características físicas, químicas y morfológicas de frutos provenientes de 20 árboles, las cuales fueron: peso de fruto, cáscara, pulpa y semilla, número de semillas, longitud, diámetro y la relación longitud/diámetro del fruto, pH, acidez titulable, sólidos solubles y azúcares totales, color (luminosidad, matiz y cromaticidad). Se detectó gran variabilidad entre los frutos de los árboles evaluados. Las características peso del fruto, cáscara, pulpa y semilla, así como pH, acidez titulable y azúcares totales fueron las más representativas para formar tres grupos. El primer grupo se integró por los materiales con mayor tamaño (longitud: 59.5, diámetro 59.1 mm) y peso (128.9 g) del fruto, el mayor número de semillas (3.3) y mayor contenido de sólidos solubles totales (11.7 °Brix); además, se ubicó el único material de color de cáscara verde, ya que el resto de los materiales presentaron un color rojo opaco. En el segundo y tercer grupo se ubicaron materiales con menor peso (entre 44 y 64 g) y tamaño (entre 40 y 45 mm de longitud y diámetro) del fruto, con valores intermedios y altos de azúcares totales (entre 84 y 104 mg·g-1), y menor número de semillas (entre 1.4 y 2.8). Se considera que el primer grupo tiene potencial para su selección y explotación hortícola.

J. E. Álvarez-Vargas
I. Alia-Tejacal
V. López-Martínez
C. M. Acosta-Durán
M. Andrade-Rodríguez
M. T. Colinas-León
I. Delgado-Escobar
O. Villegas-Torres
Revista Chapingo Serie Horticultura
Plant Catalog
Various Particulars of Ragi (finger millets) Eleusine coracana

Ragi is the main food grain for many peoples, especially in dry areas of India and Sri Lanka. Grain is higher in protein, fat and minerals than rice, corn, or sorghum (Reed, 1976). It is usually converted into flour and made into cakes, Puddings, or porridge. When consumed as food it provides a sustaining diet, especially for people doing hard work. Straw makes valuable fodder for both working and milking animals. A fermented drink or beer is made from the grain. Grain may also be malted and a flour of the malted grain used as a nourishing food for infants and invalids. Ragi is considered an especially wholesome food for diabetics. Ragi in India is eated by making flour and ragi balls. They make flat breads (Roti) and eaten with various

Cornell University
Cornell University
Plant Catalog

El marañón es nativo de las zonas costeras de la parte norte de Sur América, en especial del noroeste de Brasil.

Se cultiva por su falso fruto que se consume en forma fresca o en confituras y especialmente por la nuez que tiene gran demanda internacional.

A nivel de agricultor, la fase termina con la obtención de la nuez bruta que pasaría, posteriormente, a una etapa de industrialización.

Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganadería. Costa Rica
Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganadería. San José, Costa Rica
Plant Catalog

The slow-growing tree is erect, with a few upward-reaching branches bending outward near the summit where they are subdivided into slender branchlets drooping at the tips. The bark is ridged, fissured and scaly and there are sharp spines :3/4 to 2 in (2-5 cm) long on some of the zigzag twigs. The deciduous, alternate leaves, 3 to 5 in (7.5-12.5 cm) long, dark-green, leathery, often minutely toothed, blunt or notched at the apex, are dotted with oil glands and slightly lemon-scented when crushed. Dull-red or greenish flowers to 1/2 in (1.25 cm) wide are borne in small, loose, terminal or lateral panicles. They are usually bisexual. The fruit is round to oval, 2 to 5 in (5-12.5 cm) wide, with a hard, woody, grayish-white, scurfy rind about 1/4 in (6 mm) thick. The pulp is brown, mealy, odorous, resinous, astringent, acid or sweetish, with numerous small, white seeds scattered through it.

Julia F. Morton
Fruits of warm climates
Plant Catalog

Quinoa or quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is native to the Andes Mountains of Bolivia, Chile, and Peru. This crop (pronounced KEEN-WAH), has been called 41 vegetable caviar" or Inca rice, and has been eaten continuously for 5,000 years by people who live on the mountain plateaus and in the valleys of Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Chile. Quinua means "mother grain" in the Inca language. This crop was a staple food of the Inca people and remains an important food crop for their descendants, the Quechua and Aymara peoples who live in rural regions.

This annual species is in the goosefoot family and is related to the weed, common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.), canahua (C. pallidicaule Aellen), and wormseed (C. ambrosiodes L. anthelminticum). Possible hybrids between quinoa and common lambsquarters have been observed in Colorado. Quinoa is also in the same botanical family as sugarbeet, table beet, and spinach, and it is susceptible to many of the same insect and disease problems as these crops. Quinoa is sometimes referred to as a "pseudocereal" because it is a broadleaf non-legume that is grown for grain unlike most cereal grains which are grassy plants. It is similar in this respect to the pseudocereals buckwheat and amaranth.

E.A. Oelke
D.H. Putnam
T.M. Teynor
E.S. Oplinger
Alternative Field Crops Manual
Plant Catalog

Averrhoa carambola

The carambola tree is slow-growing, short-trunked with a much-branched, bushy, broad, rounded crown and reaches 20 to 30 ft (6-9 m) in height. Its deciduous leaves, spirally arranged, are alternate, imparipinnate, 6 to 10 in(15-20 cm) long, with 5 to 11 nearly opposite leaflets, ovate or ovate-oblong, 1 1/2 to 3 1/2 in (3.8-9 cm) long; soft, medium-green, and smooth on the upper surface, finely hairy and whitish on the underside. The leaflets are sensitive to light and more or less inclined to fold together at night or when the tree is shaken or abruptly shocked. Small clusters of red-stalked, lilac, purple-streaked, downy flowers, about 1/4 in (6 mm) wide, are borne on the twigs in the axils of the leaves. The showy, oblong, longitudinally 5- to 6-angled fruits, 2 1/2 to 6 in (6.35-15 cm) long and up to 3 1/2 (9 cm) wide, have thin, waxy, orange-yellow skin and juicy, crisp, yellow flesh when fully ripe. Slices cut in cross-section have the form of a star. The fruit has a more or less pronounced oxalic acid odor and the flavor ranges from very sour to mildly sweetish. The so-called "sweet" types rarely contain more than 4% sugar. There may be up to 12 flat, thin, brown seeds 1/4 to 1/2 in (6-12.5 mm) long or none at all.

Julia F. Morton
Purdue University
Plant Catalog
Aspectos Generales de la Carambola

La carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.), pertenece a la familia Oxalidaceae y es originaria de Asia Tropical. Actualmente esta fruta se encuentra presente en numerosos lugares de los trópicos y subtropicos, en países tales como: Australia, Brasil, China, Estados Unidos, Francia, Haití, Indochina, Malasia, México y Tailandia. En Colombia, aunque no en grandes cultivos, se tiene una amplia distribución en los departamentos de Valle del Cauca, Córdoba, Antioquia, Caldas, Quindío y Tolima, y en la región de la Amazonía (Nakasone y Paull, 1998; Villegas, 1998).
El árbol de carambola ácida del piedemonte amazónico exhibe un follaje denso con hojas compuestas, alternas, pecioladas, imparipinadas, de color bronceado cuando jóvenes y de color verde en la madurez. Las hojas poseen entre 9 y 13 foliolos pubescentes en el envés y en la zona central del haz, los foliolos se encuentran más o menos inclinados. Los árboles presentan estructuras reproductivas (flores y frutos) en diferente grado de desarrollo (González, 2000).

Agronet Colombia
Agronet Colombia
Plant Catalog
La Carambola en Florida

Nombre científico: Averrhoa carambola L.
Nombre común: carambola, fruto estrella.
Familia: Oxalidaceae
Otras plantas en la misma familia: Bilimbí o pepinillo.
Orígen: Sudeste Asiático
Distribución: La carambola se cultiva en muchas áreas tropicales y subtropicales cálidas del mundo. En los Estados Unidos, la carambola se cultiva comercialmente en el sur de Florida y en Hawaii. En Florida, las carambolas se cultivan en los condados de Miami-Dade, Lee, Broward y Palm Beach.
Historia: La carambola ha sido cultivada en el sudeste Asiático (e.g., Malasia, India y Sri Lanka) durante siglos. En Florida fué introducida hace más de 100 años. Los frutos procedentes de las primeras plantas introducidas eran ácidos. Recientemente, se han introducido semillas y materiales vegetativos procedentes de Tailandia, Taiwan y Malasia que han permitido la selección de variedades más dulces.

J. H. Crane
University of Florida IFAS Extension
Plant Catalog
Bamboo in the United States

Description, Culture, and Utilization

The gradually increasing interest in bamboo among American farmers, gardeners, and commercial users has made it desirable to bring together the essential information available concerning the types of bamboo that give most promise of value in the United States as sources of economic products or as ornamentals. Bamboo is so different in character, habits of growth, and culture from any other crop plant with which the American agriculturists is acquainted that it is necessary to provide a detailed description of the unique nature of bamboo as a basis for its utilization in agriculture. Brief mention is made of the two native bamboos of the southeastern United States, and a more detailed description of the important species of hardy oriental and of some tropical kinds that have been introduced into cultivation during the past 75 years is given. Information on the propagation, culture, and utilization of bamboos is given

Robert A. Young
Joseph R Haun
Plant Catalog